COUN 506 Exam 2 (Liberty University)

COUN 506 Exam 2 (Liberty University)

  1. Which list below provides some of the best suggestions for building a therapeutic relationship in a Christian counseling session?
  2. What would a counselor do as an “engineer” as relates to multi-tasking in Christian counseling?
  3. One counseling benefit of Nouwen’s polarities model of spiritual formation is that we find clues as to typical counseling problems. If a client was at the “loneliness” end of the pole, he/she might be struggling with
  4. Although a counselor cannot magically make suffering disappear, how might a counselor provide immediate relief?
  5. The lecture talked about internal dissonance as one reason for personal suffering. What can we say about that?
  6. From the lecture discussion of the METAMORPH Grid, what is a true statement below?
  7. The lectures talked about creating “free space” in the process of counseling suffering clients. What is a true statement from that discussion?
  8. How does the rate limiting factor mentioned in the lecture and by McMinn relate to counseling?
  9. What is the idea behind the faith tradition vs. the formation tradition in the context of spirituality; why is focusing on our formation tradition important in counseling?
  10. According to the lecture, if someone were asked: “What is spirituality?”, how would they answer if they were coming from a post-modern point of view?Term Paper Help, Research Paper Help, Essay Help
  11. If we take into account the Formation Field approach to spiritual formation in our counseling, what is true?
  12. From the lecture, when we define Christian counseling as a spiritual enterprise, what can we say?
  13. What is a main insight in Nouwen’s polarities model?
  14. From the lecture, McMinn discusses “Three Continuous Assessment Dimensions.” Which statement below is NOT one of them?
  15. The lecture talked about “hospitality” as one way for a counselor to respond to suffering. How might a counselor exercise hospitality?
  16. In counseling suffering people, what principle is true from the lectures?
  17. What propels a level of professionalism in Christian counseling?
  18. With regard to how a counselor’s temperament affects counseling, what can we say?
  19. What determines what you emphasize in counseling and the techniques you choose
  20. In the context of the discussion of Christian counseling as a spiritual enterprise, the lecture talked about “receiving grace” and “refining grace.” What is the main idea behind that discussion?
  21. One way to move your counselee from “stranger” to friend, is to ask the tough questions.
  22. There is little connection between a counselor’s worldview and the theory that a counselor chooses to promote healing.
  23. A purpose of the METAMORPH grid is to help a Christian counselor focus on factors that affect human behavior and emotions.
  24. Considering the lecture discussion of the five roles of a Christian counselor, we find that the role of “participant” has characteristics similar to establishing “solidarity” mentioned in a different lecture.
  25. With regard to attribution theory, as counselors we need to recognize that people are responsible for their own behavior but at the same time also respond to external events.
  26. The key idea of spirituality is to have a unified life
  27. In counseling suffering clients, looking at body language may help you identify some of your client’s  faulty thinking about suffering.
  28. In the Bible the _____________ is conceived as the writers’ attempt to sum up the various components of psychological, spiritual, and relational health in human beings, which also affect the physical aspects of life.
  29. A healthier, more productive view of _______________ is to see them as indicators and motivators.
  30. The counselor must assess whether the client’s view of their _________ is healthy or unhealthy.
  31. Term Paper Help, Research Paper Help, Essay Help

PHI208 Week 3 D1 & D2

PHI208 Week 3 D1 & D2

Discussion 1

To ensure that your initial post starts its own unique thread, do not  reply to this post. Instead, please click the “Reply” link above this  post.

Please read the general discussion requirements above, as well as the  announcements explaining the discussion requirements and answering the  most frequently asked questions. If you are still unsure about how to  proceed with the discussion, please reply to one of those announcements  or contact your instructor.

Please carefully read and think about the entire prompt before  composing your first post. This discussion will require you to have  carefully read Chapter 4 of the textbook, as well as the assigned  portions of Immanuel Kant’s (2008) Groundwork for the Metaphysics of  Morals.

Think of someone real or fictional whom some people regard as a  “hero” for helping others, stopping something bad or evil, and so forth,  even though by doing so they violated what would normally be considered  a moral rule (focus on morality; don’t simply think of someone who  broke the law). For example, they may have lied, broken a promise,  stolen, harmed someone innocent, or even murdered, but done so with good  intentions. (Be sure to clearly explain both sides of this example –  what seems good and what seems morally questionable about the action.)

Try to think of any example that we would either all be familiar  with, or something we can easily look up (in other words, don’t just  make something up or describe something generic). Think of characters in  movies, TV shows, or books, people in the news, historical figures,  etc. Please don’t use an example that someone else has already used!

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1. Engage with the text:

Once you have thought of your example, evaluate what they did  according to Kant’s Categorical Imperative. First, explain the  Categorical Imperative. Is what the person did moral, or immoral,  according to the Categorical Imperative? (You may focus on either  formulation.)

2. Reflect on yourself:

Do you agree with this evaluation of the action?

If you think Kant would regard it as immoral and you agree, how would  you explain to the person in your own words why what they did was wrong  despite the good intentions and effects? If you don’t agree, and think  that what they did was morally right, how would you respond to the  question, “what if everyone did that?”

If you think Kant would regard it as moral, explain whether you agree  or disagree, and consider how you would respond to someone who  disagrees.

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Discussion 2

 

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you  have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will  reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your  responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the  Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be  evaluated.

Week 3 Symposium [WLOs: 2, 3] [CLOs: 3, 4, 5]

If you are having trouble starting this video, please access it here (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Video transcript can be accessed herePreview the document.

In the Ancient Greek world (the world of Socrates, Plato, and  Aristotle, often regarded as the birthplace of philosophy) a “symposium”  was a banquet held after a meal, an “after party” of sorts that usually  included drinking, dancing, recitals and engaging conversations on the  topics of the day.

For our purposes in this course, the Symposium discussions will not  involve dancing, recitals or a banquet, but they will provide food for  thought on current ethical issues and direct application of the ethical  theory discussed in each of these weeks.

It is almost impossible these days to turn on the news or log onto  social media without encountering a controversy that cries out for  ethical discussion. For these Symposium discussions, your instructor  will choose a topic of current ethical interest and a resource  associated with it for you to read or watch. Your task is to consider  how the ethical theory of the week might be used to examine, understand  or evaluate the issue.

This week, you will consider how deontology applies to a controversy,  dilemma, event, or scenario selected by your instructor. It is a chance  for you to discuss together the ethical issues and questions that it  raises, your own response to those, and whether that aligns with or does  not align with a deontological approach. The aim is not to simply  assert your own view or to denigrate other views, but to identify,  evaluate, and discuss the moral reasoning involved in addressing the  chosen issue.

Your posts should remain focused on the ethical considerations, and  at some point in your contribution you must specifically address the way  someone with a deontological view would approach this issue by  explaining and evaluating that approach.

If you have a position, you should strive to provide reasons in defense of that position.

When responding to peers, you should strive to first understand the  reasons they are offering before challenging or critiquing those  reasons. One good way of doing this is by summarizing their argument  before offering a critique or evaluation.

 

o ensure that your initial post starts its own unique thread, do not  reply to this post. Instead, please click the “Reply” link above this  post.

Please read the description above and/or watch the video explaining  the symposium and its requirements. If you are still unsure about how to  proceed with the discussion, please contact your instructor.

This week, we will consider how deontology applies to immigration.

Please familiarize yourself with the basic immigration laws in the  United States. What are the duties of someone wanting to come into the  this country? What are the duties of the United States regarding illegal  immigration? Should these laws be changed based upon the categorical  imperative? Why/why not?

Your approach to this symposium discussion can be a bit more  open-ended than the main discussion, remembering that our main goal is  to work together to identify the main ethical questions and  considerations, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the reasons for  different positions one might hold, and come to a better understanding  of deontological theory.

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PHI208 W4 Discussion 1 & Discussion 2

PHI208 W4 Discussion 1 & Discussion 2

Discussion 1

This week our main discussion will focus on explaining and evaluating  the theory of virtue ethics as discussed in Chapter 5 of the textbook.  Your instructor will be choosing the discussion question and posting it  as the first post in the main discussion forum. The requirements for the  discussion this week include the following:

  • You must begin posting by Day 3 (Thursday).
  • You must post a minimum of four separate posts on at least three  separate days (e.g., Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, or Thursday,  Friday, and Sunday, or Thursday, Saturday, and Monday, etc.).
  • The total combined word count for all of your posts, counted together, should be at least 600 words, not including references.
  • You must answer all the questions in the prompt and show evidence of  having read the resources that are required to complete the discussion  properly (such as by using quotes, referring to specific points made in  the text, etc.).

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Discussion: The Experience Machine

To ensure that your initial post starts its own unique thread, do not  reply to this post. Instead, please click the “Reply” link above this  post.

Please read the general discussion requirements above, as well as the  announcements explaining the discussion requirements and answering the  most frequently asked questions. If you are still unsure about how to  proceed with the discussion, please reply to one of those announcements  or contact your instructor.

Please carefully read and think about the entire prompt before  composing your first post. This discussion will require you to have  carefully read Chapter 5 of the textbook, as well as the assigned  portions of Aristotle’s (1931) Nicomachean Ethics.

If you recall from Week 2/Chapter 3, John Stuart Mill (2008) defines  happiness as the experience of pleasure and the avoidance of pain, which  means that happiness is very much a matter of how I feel “on the  inside”. However, Aristotle (1931) holds a rather different view of  happiness (or in his terms, “eudaimonia”).

One way that we think about this difference is to conduct a “thought  experiment” in which we imagine that we have certain “inner”  experiences, but outwardly things are quite different. One such thought  experiment is provided by the philosopher Robert Nozick in his  description of the “experience machine”:

“Suppose there were an experience machine that would give you any  experience you desired. Superduper neuropsychologists could stimulate  your brain so that you would think and feel you were writing a great  novel, or making a friend, or reading an interesting book. All the time  you would be floating in a tank, with electrodes attached to your  brain…Of course, while in the tank you won’t know that you’re there;  you’ll think it’s actually happening…Would you plug in? What else can  matter to us, other than how our lives feel from the inside?” (Nozick,  1974, p. 43)

In the course of the week’s discussion, you will need to do the following (not necessarily in this order):

1. Engage with the text:

Using at least one quote from the assigned texts, explain Aristotle’s  notion of eudaimonia. Then, discuss whether Aristotle would consider  someone hooked

up to the experience machine to be “happy” in the sense captured by that notion of eudaimonia.

2. Reflect on yourself:

If you had the chance to be permanently hooked up to the experience  machine, would you do it? Explain your choice. For example, if you would  not hook up, you may discuss the kinds of goods or aims that would be  lost by hooking up, or you may discuss the core, essential features of  your life (or of human life in general) that are undermined by being in  such a state.

3. Reflect on human life:

Based on your response, do you think that we can describe aspects of a  telos (in Aristotle’s sense) that applies to humanity in general, or at  least most people? Correspondingly, could there be a difference between  feeling happy and being happy? Do you think that people can be wrong  about happiness? (Notice that this isn’t asking whether there are  different ways in which people can find happiness; it’s asking whether  some of those ways could be mistaken.)

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Discussion 2

 

In the Ancient Greek world (the world of Socrates, Plato, and  Aristotle, often regarded as the birthplace of philosophy) a “symposium”  was a banquet held after a meal, an “after party” of sorts that usually  included drinking, dancing, recitals and engaging conversations on the  topics of the day.

For our purposes in this course, the Symposium discussions will not  involve dancing, recitals or a banquet, but they will provide food for  thought on current ethical issues and direct application of the ethical  theory discussed in each of these weeks.

It is almost impossible these days to turn on the news or log onto  social media without encountering a controversy that cries out for  ethical discussion. For these Symposium discussions, your instructor  will choose a topic of current ethical interest and a resource  associated with it for you to read or watch. Your task is to consider  how the ethical theory of the week might be used to examine, understand  or evaluate the issue.

This week, you will consider how virtue ethics applies to a  controversy, dilemma, event, or scenario selected by your instructor. It  is a chance for you to discuss together the ethical issues and  questions that it raises, your own response to those, and whether that  aligns with or does not align with a virtue ethics approach. The aim is  not to simply assert your own view or to denigrate other views, but to  identify, evaluate, and discuss the moral reasoning involved in  addressing the chosen issue.

Your posts should remain focused on the ethical considerations, and  at some point in your contribution you must specifically address the way  a virtue ethicist would approach this issue by explaining and  evaluating that approach.

If you have a position, you should strive to provide reasons in defense of that position.

 

o ensure that your initial post starts its own unique thread, do not  reply to this post. Instead, please click the “Reply” link above this  post.

Please read the description above and/or watch the video explaining  the symposium and its requirements. If you are still unsure about how to  proceed with the discussion, please contact your instructor.

This week, we will consider how virtue ethics applies to the entertainment industry (broadly speaking).

Please watch or review your  favorite movie.  How is virtue displayed in any of the characters?  Many  movies often have an element of revenge woven into the story line.  Is  revenge a virtue or a vice?

Your approach to this symposium discussion can be a bit more  open-ended than the main discussion, remembering that our main goal is  to work together to identify the main ethical questions and  considerations, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the reasons for  different positions one might hold, and come to a better understanding  of virtue ethics.

You must post on at least two separate days, must include at least one  substantial reply to a peer or to your instructor, and your posts should  add up to at least 400 words.

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Collaboration and Communication Action Plan

Collaboration and Communication Action Plan

Complete a 750-1,000-word action plan and supporting rationale based on the following scenario:

Mark is a Hispanic 8th grade student who has been identified as having an emotional/behavioral disorder, specifically Mood Disorder (Not otherwise  specified). Currently, he participates in a general education inclusion classroom. During his annual IEP meeting, the team reviewed recent test scores and determined he qualifies
for the gifted program in the area of ELA only. He will continue to participate in the inclusion classroom for the remainder of his courses.  He is very successful in all of his inclusion classes. Mrs. Stone, the gifted teacher, was not able to be present during the IEP meeting. She has never worked with a student who has an IEP before. Mark is the only Hispanic student in the gifted class, which tends to make him uncomfortable. He says the teacher does not include him in the classroom conversations and speaks abruptly to him, but not to the other students.

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After one month of Mark being in the gifted class, Mrs. Stone has requested that a paraeducator be present to support Mark. The IEP team determined that this was necessary because in order to meet Mark’s needs. After the paraeducator was assigned, the principal did a walk through observation of the gifted classroom and he noticed that Mark was isolated in a corner and the teacher did not interact with him. In addition, the principal received a phone call from Mark’s parents stating Mrs. Stone told Mark, “You do not belong in this class!” Mark no longer wants to be in the class because he does not
feel welcome.

The principal has come to you, the special education teacher, for assistance with supporting Mrs. Stone and Mark in being successful. To assist the principal, create an action plan that includes goals and steps for achieving those goals and reporting progress.

Specifically, the action plan should include one over-arching long-term goal and a minimum of four short-term goals related to the following considerations:

  1. Communication and collaboration between teachers of the student, specifying positives in working with the student in their classrooms, as well as challenges that may arise as a result of the complex human issues that interact with the delivery of special education services.
  2. Collaborative coaching for the gifted teacher to include research-based instructional strategies and recommendations that acknowledge that diversity is a part of families, cultures, and schools.
  3.  Collaborative coaching and guidance for the paraeductor with the intention of providing support to the gifted teacher and student.
  4. Evaluating the implementation of the action plan activities and reporting back to
    administration.
  5. Communication strategies to use with the student’s parents that demonstrate elements of effective collaboration.

Next, outline detailed action steps related to each identified goal utilizing the “Action Plan Template.”

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Research Writing EXD 330-110

Research Writing EXD 330-110

You have six months to complete this contract

Module 1 Overview  

Research – it’s not a word that most of us like. Add “Research Paper” and many people break out in a cold sweat. Never fear! This course will cover the steps for writing a research paper ONE at a time. In Module 1, we will start by finding one current controversial article. By Module 4, an entire research paper will come together.  Let’s call it an “Argumentative Synthesis” so no one breaks out in hives!

Module 1 Objectives

Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:

· Demonstrate the ability to use The University of Alabama’s Scout search engine to find current, controversial sources.

· Determine if the sources found are reliable and credible.

· Identify the importance of highlighting and annotating possible sources.

· Understand the importance of asking questions about your sources to establish credibility

· Understand how to create an annotated bibliography.

· Understand how to summarize and evaluate an article.

Module 1 Readings

*Example of MLA formatting used for first page of all writing assignments found on page 59 and 465.

Read pages 357-375 & 375-389 – under Researching – green R

Read pages 71-75 – under Academic Writing – yellow A

Watch all video tutorials to learn how to use Scout and proper researching techniques.

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Module 1 Assignment 1: Research using Scout

For this assignment, you will use the readings and videos to find your first current, controversial source. This assignment is worth 10 points.

1.

1.

1.

1. Review the videos and the tutorials on how to use the University of Alabama’s Scout search engine.

2. Choose a current, controversial topic.

3. Use Scout to locate one interesting article on your research topic. (The article should be in PDF format if possible and at least 2-5 pages in length. Also try to find articles published within the last six months if possible. You can stretch to a year if you must.)

4. Use the Email function in Scout to email the article to yourself. You should also e-mail the Works Cited entry. (Click on Cite at the top right of the screen. Choose MLA and the entry will come up.)

5. Use the Internet to locate information on the author of the article and the publication. It’s always good to know if the author or journal has a bias.

6. Submit the PDF of your article by clicking on the Module 1 Assignment 1 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 1 Assignment 2: Evaluating the source

For this assignment you will be using the article you selected in the first assignment and your text to answer questions. This assignment is worth 10 points.

Directions:

1.

1.

1.

1. Create a document in a word processing program (e.g. Microsoft Word). As a UA student, you can download Microsoft 365 free of charge at the UA OIT website. You will need your CWID.

2. Copy the ten questions from p. 382 “Evaluating all sources” and then paste them into the Word document.

3. Answer each question as it relates to the article you found in Assignment 1.

4. Save the document as m1a2_yourname.

5. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 1 Assignment 2 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

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Module 1 Assignment 3: Highlight and Annotate

Review pages 71 -75. For this assignment, you will need to highlight and annotate your article. Every time you highlight a word or section, stop and explain why. You can highlight and annotate in a pdf file or in a Word file.  This assignment is worth 10 points.

1.

1.

1.

1. Save the document as m1a3_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 1 Assignment 3 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 1 Assignment 4: Annotated Bibliography

Review pages 369-389. For this assignment, you will start an annotated bibliography. See example on p. 387. Make sure to include the entry, a summary and an evaluation. Center Annotated Bibliography at the top of the page. Make sure to use double spacing and 12 point font in Times New Roman.                                              This assignment is worth 30 points.

Note: Your bibliographic entry will be done for you by UA Scout, but if you want to know why different parts are put in a particular order, you can look at pages 422-461 for a complete breakdown of all kinds of entries. A bibliography is a list of ALL sources consulted; a Works Cited is a list of only the sources used in a particular paper. Since we are using all five sources, the same sources will be listed for both of these assignments.

1.

1.

1.

1. Save the document as m1a4_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 1 Assignment 4 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 1 = 60 points

 

 

Module 2 Overview

After reading an article, if you can turn to a friend and summarize it, then you obviously understood what you read. Moreover, if you can explain what made the article effective, you can also decide if the article is relevant and helpful to your research. In this module, you will understand the importance of being able to summarize, analyze and use the writing process.

Module 2 Objectives

Upon completion of Module 2, you will be able to:

· Review the importance of highlighting and annotating what you read.

· Review the importance of asking questions about your sources to establish credibility.

· Review the importance of being able to summarize what you read.

· Understand how to create a written analysis of an article.

· Identify the importance of using the writing process which includes: creating a working thesis and an organizational plan, highlighting and annotating a rough draft version, and revising a final draft.

Module 2 Readings

Review pages 71-77 yellow tab A and pages 357-389 green tab R.

Read pages 75-88 yellow tab A.

Module 2 Assignment 1: Research – two more articles

For this assignment you will continue to use Scout. This time you will locate two additional articles on the same topic you selected in Module 1. This assignment is worth 20 points. (10 points per article)

Directions

1.

1.

1.

1. Use Scout to locate two additional articles (PDF format) (approximately 2-5 pages each) on your research topic.

2. Highlight and annotate the articles as you did in Module 1 Assignment 4 and save the articles as m2article1_yourname and m2article2_yourname.

3. Use the Internet to locate additional information about the author(s) and publication. Consider the “Evaluating all sources” questions, but they are not required for submission.

4. Submit your completed assignment by clicking on the Module 2 Assignment 1 title above and attaching the following using the Assignment Submission tool:

· Article 1 highlighted and annotated

· Article 2 highlighted and annotated

 

Module 2 Assignment 2: Add to Annotated Bibliography

Add the two new articles to your Annotated Bibliography: Review 369-389. Make sure the summaries are comprehensive. This assignment is worth 40 points.

1.

1.

1.

1. Save the document as m2a2_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 2 Assignment 2 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 2 Assignment 3: Analysis

Review pages 78-83 and write an analysis of ONE of your two new articles. Remember and analysis is different from a summary. You should include brief summary, but then then main focus is to decide if the article is effective. Is this a good article? This assignment is broken up into three sections, so I can make sure you are analyzing the article. Submit each section individually. Wait for feedback and a grade on one section before moving to the next section. The writing process is important.

Create as working thesis and then create an organizational plan for your paragraphs. See page 83. 10 pts

1.

1.

1.

1. Save the document as m2a3_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 2 Assignment 2 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

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Module 2 Assignment 4: Analysis Rough Draft

Create a rough draft of your analysis and then answer the seven questions found on page 83 under REVISE. Highlight and annotate your rough draft. Ask questions if you are unsure of how something should be done. Wait for feedback. 20 pts.

1.

1.

1.

1. Save the document as m2a4_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 2 Assignment 4 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 2 Assignment 5: Analysis Final Draft

Using the instructor’s comments, revise your rough draft and create a final draft of your analysis. Use pages 80-81 as a model. Your analysis should be two to three pages long. Use MLA format: Times New Roman 12 point font, double spacing, a header with your last name and the page number, a centered title and a Works Cited page with the entry for the article. 70 pts.

 

1.

1.

1. Save the document as m2a5_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 2 Assignment 5 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

E-mail me if you have questions.

Module 2 = 160 points

Module 3 Overview

I am sure you can tell someone all about one published article that you read. However, how would you explain what you found in five published articles? You would be forced to write down information to keep them all straight. What if you wanted to use these five or six articles to discuss why Americans (should or should not) be allowed to have as many guns as they want? What you learn in Module 3 keeps you from plagiarizing. Every time you use information from a published source (print or web) you must give credit to the source. Plagiarism is a big “no – no.” Thank you Module 3!

Module 3 Objectives

Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:

· Review the importance of highlighting and annotating what you read to help with critical reading.

· Review the importance of asking questions about your sources to establish credibility.

· Identify strategies to avoid plagiarism.

· Understand the importance of using proper methods to quote and paraphrase information.

· Describe how to use sources and properly document those sources using parenthetical citations.

· Understand how to always give credit to the published source of information used.

· Demonstrate how to create a Works Cited list for your paper.

Module 3 Readings

Read pages 399-412 MLA white tab: Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism and pages 412-422 MLA white tab: Documenting sources. Also use pages 422-464 as a reference for all the different kinds of Works Cited entries. However, since we have been working on an annotated bibliography, you will have your Works Cited entries in the correct format.

The MLA white tabbed section contains the most important pages for this class.

Module 3 Assignment 1: Research – two more articles

For this assignment you will continue to use Scout. Locate two additional articles on the same topic you selected in Module 1 and 2. This assignment is worth 20 points. (10 points per article)

Directions

1.

1.

1.

1. Use Scout to locate two additional articles (PDF format) (approximately 2-5 pages each) on your research topic. Highlight and annotate the articles as you did in Module 2 and save the articles as m3article1_yourname and m3article2_yourname.

2. Use the Internet to locate additional information about the author(s) and publication. Consider the “Evaluating all sources” questions, but they are not required for submission.

3. Submit your completed assignment by clicking on the Module 3 Assignment 1 title above and attaching the following using the Assignment Submission tool:

· Article 1 highlighted and annotated

· Article 2 highlighted and annotated

Module 3 Assignment 2: Add to Annotated Bibliography

Add the two new articles to your Annotated Bibliography: Review 369-389. Make sure the summaries are comprehensive. This assignment is worth 40 points.

1.

1.

1.

1. Save the document as m2a2_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 2 Assignment 2 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

 

 

Module 3 Assignment 3: Summarizing and giving credit to the source

Review pages 400-403 & 412. Find a long section of information in each of your new articles. Type the original section, and then type a summarized version. *Remember that a summary should be a condensed version, so the summary will be shorter than the original. Use an in-text citation at the end of the summary to give credit to the source. Use an MLA heading and MLA formatting. 10 pts.

1.

1.

1.

1. Save the document as m3a3_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 3 Assignment 3 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

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Module 3 Assignment 4: Paraphrasing and giving credit to the source

Review pages 400-403 & 412. Find two interesting section of information in each of your new articles. Type the original section, and then type a paraphrased version. *Remember that paraphrased information is about the same length as the original. Use an in-text citation at the end to give credit to the source. Use an MLA heading and MLA formatting. 10 pts.

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2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 3 Assignment 4 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 3 Assignment 5: Quoting and giving credit to the source

Review pages 403-412. Find five interesting facts from each of your two new articles. (You probably highlighted many facts when you were reading the articles.) Type these ten facts as direct quotations from your articles. Use the integration methods, such as signal phrases, discussed in your book – paying close attention to page 406. Use an in-text citation at the end of each quotation to give credit to the source. Use an MLA heading and MLA formatting. 20 pts.

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2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 3 Assignment 5 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 3 = 100 points

 

Module 4 Overview

You now have five good articles that you have thoroughly researched. It’s time to decide on a thesis and use your articles to present an argumentative synthesis. You have all the tools you need. It’s time to put it all together.

 

Module 4 Objectives

Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:

· Review the importance of highlighting and annotating a rough draft version.

· Identify the basic elements of writing an argumentative synthesis.

· Create an argumentative synthesis.

Module 4 Readings

Read pages 7-20 and pages 30-60 yellow tab C

Read pages 89-113 yellow tab A and pages 464-470 white tab MLA.

Module 4 Assignment 1: Working thesis – Argumentative Synthesis.

Review pages 9-12 and write a working thesis for your Argumentative Essay. 5 points

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1. Save the document as m4a1_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 4 Assignment 1 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 4 Assignment 2: Argument Points

Come up with six to eight arguments to support your thesis. Type them considering the order in which they should be presented. Type them in order and then answer the first three questions on page 105 under “Anticipating and countering opposing arguments.”  20 points

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Module 4 Assignment 3: Rough Draft of Argumentative Synthesis

Review pages 89-111. Create a rough draft of your Argumentative Synthesis. When you complete your rough draft, go back and highlight and annotate it with your own comments and questions. I will answer all questions in my grading comments. 40 points

Paper Requirements: 5-8 pages in length including the Works Cited page. Double spaced, Times new Roman 12 point font, MLA formatting including the heading and header, and must integrate at least one summarized section, seven paraphrased sections, and five factual quotations.

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1. Save the document as m4a3_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 4 Assignment 3 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 4 Assignment 4: Works Cited

Review page 470. Type a Works Cited list. This should be easy since you have been keeping an Annotated Bibliography. Follow the model. Pay attention to spacing and indentions. Make sure to alphabetize the entries by the first listed author’s last name. 15 points   E-mail me if you have questions.

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2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 4 Assignment 4 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Wait until you read the comments on this rough draft before you submit the final draft.

Module 4 Assignment 5: Argumentative Synthesis – Final Draft

Revise your essay based on the feedback and comments made on the rough draft. Proofread and edit.  Submit a polished version. 100 points

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1. Save the document as m4a5_yourname.

2. Submit your completed document by clicking on the Module 4 Assignment 5 title above and using the Assignment Submission tool to attach your file.

Module 4 = 180 points

Total 500 points

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Community Health Field Experience Paper

Community Health Field Experience Paper

Approved Topic List: Choosing Your Field Project Topic with a Primary Prevention Focus

Note: You may not log any work on your field project until you are enrolled in Community

Health and Population-Focused Nursing Field Experience/Community Health and Population-

Focused Nursing Clinical and have selected your topic.

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What is a Primary Prevention?

The Community Health Nursing practicum requires a field project. The project focuses on

primary prevention. Primary prevention is the prevention of disease, injury, disability or

premature death before they occur.

First Steps in Choosing a Field Project Topic

First, consider what might be an issue of public health concern in your own community. The

pertinent questions to consider are:

 What is the biggest contributor to disease (morbidity) and premature death

(mortality) in your community?

 What are the controversial community health concerns discussed in your local

newspaper?

 What do you believe people in your community are most concerned about related to

health?

 What is generating the most visits to the emergency room or hospital admission in

your community?

 What do you believe is reducing the quality of life in your community?

Possible Topic Areas to Choose for Field Project

Access to Healthcare

 access to mental health services

 access to dental health services

 access to health services

 promotion of health literacy

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Alcohol and Drug Use

 responsible alcohol consumption

 prevention of drug abuse, including

– IV drug use

– prescription drug use

Child Health

 prevention of neonatal mortality

 prevention of unintentional childhood injuries, including:

– sudden unexpected infant death (SUID)

– poisoning

– drowning

– motor vehicle related (child safety seat and seat belt use)

– sports related

– pedestrian related

 prevention of child abuse

 promotion of vaccination

Disabled

 promotion of health and well-being, including

– access to disability related services and devices,

– limit barriers to participating in home, work, school, or community activities

Disaster Preparedness

 prevention of adverse health consequences caused by natural and human caused

disasters

HIV/AIDS

 prevention of HIV/AIDS, including

– sexual transmission

– prenatal transmission

– IV drug use transmission

Oral Health

 prevention of dental caries

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Obesity/Nutrition

 prevention of overweight and obesity through healthy nutrition and physical activity

 prevention of food deserts

Physical Environment

 promotion of healthy physical environment, including

– air quality

– land quality

– water quality

Seniors

 prevention of falls

 prevention of social isolation

 promotion of vaccination

Sexual Health

 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

Social Environment

 safe, affordable, quality housing (prevention of homelessness)

Tobacco

 prevention of tobacco use

 prevention of smoking

Unintentional Injuries

 prevention of workplace injuries

 prevention of motor vehicle related death/injuries

– prevention of pedestrian injury and death (includes bicyclists)

Violence

 prevention of domestic violence/intimate partner violence

 prevention of dating violence

 prevention of gang violence

 prevention of community violence

 prevention of bullying/cyber-bullying

 prevention of suicide/depression

 Prevention of human/sex trafficking

Women’s and Maternal Health

 prevention of unintended pregnancies

 lack of breastfeeding/promotion of breastfeeding

 promotion of vaccination

Resources to Start Your Topic Choice Process

 Healthy People 2020

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Developmentally Appropriate Activity Planning

Developmentally Appropriate Activity Planning

The focus of the Final Project is to choose nine developmentally appropriate activities for young children. Your capability to effectively plan these activities demonstrates your mastery of the course learning outcomes and your ability to use your knowledge to plan effective activities for young children. Early childhood educators play an important role in the future success of children, and your ability to create effective curriculum experiences is a fundamental part of that.

To prepare for this assignment,

  • Please refer to the Week 5 Guidance for further tips and examples that will support your success with this discussion.
  • Review and download the ECE 203 Activity Template. 
    • There are nine required sections total: Science/Sensory, Language and Literacy, Creativity, Fine motor (please choose an indoor activity), Gross motor (please choose an outdoor activity), Self-Concept, Emotional Skills/ Regulation, Social Skills, and Math.
    • Read the required resources for this week and consider reviewing the recommended resources as well.

Remember that any applicable resource used throughout this course can support the requirement for four scholarly resources for this assignment.

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  • If you did not begin the development of your ePortfolio in ECE 101, read Portfolium Student Guide to help you set up your ePortfolio.
    • Choose an area of focus:
      • Center-Based Preschool (3, 4, or 5 years old)
      • Center-Based Infant/Toddler (young infants, mobile infants, or toddlers)
      • Early Childhood (4–8 years old)
  • In your assignment, create a nine-page Word document that addresses the following:
    For the Center-Based Preschool Option
  • Complete each section of the ECE 203 Activity Template.
    • To complete the sections for a Center-Based Preschool:
      • Indicate the age group (3s, 4s or 5s).
      • List the intended goals.
      • List all of the materials that will be needed for each activity.
      • Explain in detail the process/teaching strategies that will be used for each activity.
      • Specify how each activity is developmentally appropriate for that age group.

For the Center-Based Infant/Toddler Option

  • Complete each section of the Activity Template.
    • To complete the sections for a Center-Based Infant/Toddler:
      • Indicate the age group (3s, 4s or 5s). Of the nine activities, three should be appropriate for young infants, three for mobile infants and three for toddlers.
      • List the intended goals.
      • List all of the materials that will be needed for each activity.
      • Explain in detail the process/teaching strategies that will be used for each activity.
      • Specify how each activity is developmentally appropriate for that age group.

For the Early Childhood (4–8 Years Old) Option

  • Complete each section of the Activity Template
    • To complete the sections for Early Childhood:
      • Indicate the age group (4, 5, 6, 7, 8).
      • List the intended goals.
      • List all of the materials that will be needed for each activity.
      • Explain in detail the process/teaching strategies that will be used for each activity.
      • Specify how each activity is developmentally appropriate for that age group.

For this assignment, you must submit

  • A link to your electronic portfolio in Portfolium. To do this you will copy and paste the Web address into the comments feature in Waypoint.
  • A Word document including your completed assignment, as well as the link to your ePortfolio.
  • Click on the Assignment Submission button. The Waypoint “Student Dashboard” will appear.
  • Browse for your assignment.
  • Click Upload.
  • Confirm that your assignment was successfully submitted by viewing the appropriate week’s assignment tab in Waypoint, or clicking on Check Assignment Status within the Meet Your Instructor unit in the left navigation panel.
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The Developmentally Appropriate Activity Planning project:

Mystic Monk Coffee Case Study

Mystic Monk Coffee Case Study

Mystic Monk Coffee

David L. Turnipseed University of South Alabama

As Father Daniel Mary, the prior of the Car-melite Order of monks in Clark, Wyoming, walked to chapel to preside over Mass, he noticed the sun glistening across the four-inch snow- fall from the previous evening. Snow in June was not unheard of in Wyoming, but the late snowfall and the bright glow of the rising sun made him consider the opposing forces accompanying change and how he might best prepare his monastery to achieve his vision of creating a new Mount Carmel in the Rocky Mountains. His vision of transforming the small brotherhood of 13 monks living in a small home used as makeshift rectory into a 500-acre monastery that would include accommodations for 30 monks, a Gothic church, a convent for Carmelite nuns, a retreat center for lay visitors, and a hermitage pre- sented a formidable challenge. However, as a former high school football player, boxer, bull rider, and man of great faith, Father Prior Daniel Mary was unaccustomed to shrinking from a challenge.

Father Prior had identified a nearby ranch for sale that met the requirements of his vision per- fectly, but its current listing price of $8.9 million presented a financial obstacle to creating a place of prayer, worship, and solitude in the Rockies. The Carmelites had received a $250,000 donation that could be used toward the purchase, and the monas- tery had earned nearly $75,000 during the first year of its Mystic Monk coffee-roasting operations, but more money would be needed. The coffee roaster used to produce packaged coffee sold to Catholic consumers at the Mystic Monk Coffee website was reaching its capacity, but a larger roaster could be purchased for $35,000. Also, local Cody, Wyoming, business owners had begun a foundation for those wishing to donate to the monks’ cause. Father Prior Daniel Mary did not have a great deal of experience in business matters but considered to what extent the monastery could rely on its Mystic Monk Coffee operations to fund the purchase of the ranch. If Mys- tic Monk Coffee was capable of making the vision a reality, what were the next steps in turning the coffee into land?

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THE CARMELITE MONKS OF WYOMING Carmelites are a religious order of the Catholic Church that was formed by men who traveled to the Holy Land as pilgrims and crusaders and had chosen to remain near Jerusalem to seek God. The men established their hermitage at Mount Carmel because of its beauty, seclusion, and biblical impor- tance as the site where Elijah stood against King Ahab and the false prophets of Jezebel to prove Jehovah to be the one true God. The Carmelites led a life of solitude, silence, and prayer at Mount Carmel before eventually returning to Europe and becoming a recognized order of the Catholic Church. The size of the Carmelite Order varied widely throughout the centuries with its peak in the 1600s and stood at approximately 2,200 friars living on all inhabited continents at the beginning of the 21st century.

The Wyoming Carmelite monastery was founded by Father Daniel Mary, who lived as a Carmelite hermit in Minnesota before moving to Clark, Wyo- ming, to establish the new monastery. The Wyoming Carmelites were a cloistered order and were allowed again for prayer and worship. The monks then returned to work until the bell was rung for Vespers (evening prayer). After Vespers, the monks had an hour of silent contemplation, an evening meal, and more prayers before bedtime.

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The New Mount Carmel Soon after arriving in Wyoming, Father Daniel Mary had formed the vision of acquiring a large parcel of land—a new Mount Carmel—and building a mon- astery with accommodations for 30 monks, a retreat center for lay visitors, a Gothic church, a convent for Carmelite nuns, and a hermitage. In a letter to sup- porters posted on the monastery’s website, Father Daniel Mary succinctly stated his vision: “We beg your prayers, your friendship and your support that this vision, our vision may come to be that Mount Carmel may be refounded in Wyoming’s Rockies for the glory of God.”

The brothers located a 496-acre ranch for sale that would satisfy all of the requirements to create a new Mount Carmel. The Irma Lake Ranch was located about 21 miles outside Cody, Wyoming, and included a remodeled 17,800-square-foot residence, a 1,700-square-foot caretaker house, a 2,950-square- foot guesthouse, a hunting cabin, a dairy and horse barn, and forested land. The ranch was at the end of a seven-mile-long private gravel road and was bordered on one side by the private Hoodoo Ranch (100,000 acres) and on the other by the Shoshone National Park (2.4 million acres). Although the ask- ing price was $8.9 million, the monks believed they would be able to acquire the property through dona- tions and the profits generated by the monastery’s Mystic Monk Coffee operations. The $250,000 dona- tion they had received from an individual wishing to support the Carmelites could be applied toward whatever purpose the monks chose. Additionally, a group of Cody business owners had formed the New Mount Carmel Foundation to help the monks raise funds.

OVERVIEW OF THE COFFEE INDUSTRY About 150 million consumers in the United States drank coffee, with 89 percent of U.S. coffee drink- ers brewing their own coffee at home rather than purchasing ready-to-drink coffee at coffee shops

to leave the monastery only by permission of the bishop for medical needs or the death of a family member. The Wyoming monastery’s abbey bore little resemblance to the great stone cathedrals and monasteries of Europe and was confined to a rec- tory that had once been a four- bedroom ranch-style home and an adjoining 42 acres of land that had been donated to the monastery.

There were 13 monks dedicated to a life of prayer and worship in the Wyoming Carmelite monastery. Since the founding of the monastery six years ago, there had been more than 500 inquiries from young men considering becoming a Wyoming Carmelite. Father Prior Daniel Mary wished to eventually have 30 monks who would join the brotherhood at ages 19 to 30 and live out their lives in the monastery. However, the selection criteria for acceptance into the monastery were rigorous, with the monks mak- ing certain that applicants understood the reality of the vows of obedience, chastity, and poverty and the sacrifices associated with living a cloistered reli- gious life.

The Daily Activities of a Carmelite Monk The Carmelite monks’ day began at 4:10 a.m., when they arose and went to chapel for worship wearing traditional brown habits and handmade sandals. At about 6:00 a.m., the monks rested and contemplated in silence for one hour before Father Prior began morning Mass. After Mass, the monks went about their manual labors. In performing their labors, each brother had a special set of skills that enabled the monastery to independently maintain its operations. Brother Joseph Marie was an excellent mechanic, Brother Paul was a carpenter, Brother Peter Joseph (Brother Cook) worked in the kitchen, and five-foot, four-inch Brother Simon Mary (Little Monk) was the secretary to Father Daniel Mary. Brother Elias, affectionately known as Brother Java, was Mystic Monk Coffee’s master roaster, although he was not a coffee drinker.

Each monk worked up to six hours per day; how- ever, the monks’ primary focus was spiritual, with eight hours of each day spent in prayer. At 11:40 a.m., the monks stopped work and went to Chapel. After- ward they had lunch, cleaned the dishes, and went back to work. At 3:00 p.m., the hour that Jesus was believed to have died on the cross, work stopped it easier for farmers in developing countries to pay workers a living wage. The specialty coffee segment of the retail coffee industry had grown dramatically in the United States, with retail sales increasing from $8.3 billion to $13.5 billion during the last seven years. The retail sales of organic coffee accounted for about $1 billion of industry sales and had grown at an annual rate of 32 percent for each of the last seven years.

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MYSTIC MONK COFFEE Mystic Monk Coffee was produced using high- quality fair trade Arabica and fair trade/organic Arabica beans. The monks produced whole-bean and ground caffeinated and decaffeinated variet- ies in dark, medium, and light roasts and in differ- ent flavors. The most popular Mystic Monk flavors were Mystical Chants of Carmel, Cowboy Blend, Royal Rum Pecan, and Mystic Monk Blend. With the exception of sample bags, which carried a retail price of $2.99, all varieties of Mystic Monk Cof- fee were sold via the monastery’s website (www. mysticmonkcoffee.com) in 12-ounce bags at a price of $9.95. All purchases from the website were delivered by United Parcel Service (UPS) or the U.S. Postal Service. Frequent customers were given the option of joining a “coffee club,” which offered monthly delivery of one to six bags of preselected coffee. Purchases of three or more bags qualified for free shipping. The Mystic Monk Coffee website also featured T-shirts, gift cards, CDs featuring the mon- astery’s Gregorian chants, and coffee mugs.

Mystic Monk Coffee’s target market was the segment of the U.S. Catholic population who drank coffee and wished to support the monastery’s mis- sion. More than 69 million Americans were mem- bers of the Catholic Church—making it four times larger than the second-largest Christian denomina- tion in the United States. An appeal to Catholics to “use their Catholic coffee dollar for Christ and his Catholic church” was published on the Mystic Monk Coffee website.

Mystic Monk Coffee- Roasting Operations After the morning religious services and breakfast, Brother Java roasted the green coffee beans deliv- ered each week from a coffee broker in Seattle,

and restaurants such as Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, or McDonald’s. Packaged coffee for home brewing was easy to find in any grocery store and typically carried a retail price of $4 to $6 for a 12-ounce pack- age. About 30 million coffee drinkers in the United States preferred premium-quality specialty coffees that sold for $7 to $10 per 12-ounce package. Spe- cialty coffees were made from high-quality Arabica beans instead of the mix of low-quality Arabica beans and bitter, less flavorful Robusta beans that makers of value brands used. The wholesale price of Robusta coffee beans averaged $1.15 per pound, while mild Columbian Arabica wholesale prices averaged $1.43 per pound.

Prior to the 1990s, the market for premium- quality specialty coffees barely existed in the United States, but Howard Schultz’s vision for Starbucks of bringing the Italian espresso bar experience to America helped specialty coffees become a large and thriving segment of the industry. The compa- ny’s pursuit of its mission, “To inspire and nurture the human spirit—one person, one cup, and one neighborhood at a time,” had allowed Starbucks to become an iconic brand in most parts of the world. The company’s success had given rise to a number of competing specialty coffee shops and premium brands of packaged specialty coffee, including Seattle’s Best, Millstone, Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, and First Colony Coffee and Tea. Some producers such as First Colony had difficulty gain- ing shelf space in supermarkets and concentrated on private-label roasting and packaging for fine depart- ment stores and other retailers wishing to have a pro- prietary brand of coffee.

Specialty coffees sold under premium brands might have been made from shade-grown or organi- cally grown coffee beans, or have been purchased from a grower belonging to a World Fair Trade Orga- nization (WFTO) cooperative. WFTO cooperative growers were paid above-market prices to better sup- port the cost of operating their farms—for example, WFTO-certified organic wholesale prices averaged $1.55 per pound. Many consumers who purchased specialty coffees were willing to pay a higher price for organic, shade-grown, or fair trade coffee because of their personal health or social concerns— organic coffees were grown without the use of syn- thetic fertilizers or pesticides, shade-grown coffee plants were allowed to grow beneath the canopies of larger indigenous trees, and fair trade pricing made Mystic Monk’s Financial Performance At the conclusion of Mystic Monk Coffee’s first year in operation, its sales of coffee and coffee accesso- ries averaged about $56,500 per month. Its cost of sales averaged about 30 percent of revenues, inbound shipping costs accounted for 19 percent of revenues, and broker fees were 3 percent of revenues—for a total cost of goods sold of 52 percent. Operating expenses such as utilities, supplies, telephone, and website maintenance averaged 37 percent of rev- enues. Thus, Mystic Monk’s net profit margin aver- aged 11 percent of revenues.

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REALIZING THE VISION During a welcome period of solitude before his evening meal, Father Prior Daniel Mary again con- templated the purchase of the Irma Lake Ranch. He realized that his vision of purchasing the ranch would require careful planning and execution. For the Wyoming Carmelites, coffee sales were a means of support from the outside world that might pro- vide the financial resources to purchase the land. Father Prior understood that the cloistered monastic environment offered unique challenges to operating a business enterprise, but it also provided opportu- nities that were not available to secular businesses. He resolved to develop an execution plan that would enable Mystic Monk Coffee to minimize the effect of its cloistered monastic constraints, maximize the potential of monastic opportunities, and realize his vision of buying the Irma Lake Ranch.

Washington. The monks paid the Seattle broker the prevailing wholesale price per pound, which fluc- tuated daily with global supply and demand. The capacity of Mystic Monk Coffee’s roaster limited production to 540 pounds per day; production was also limited by time devoted to prayer, silent medita- tion, and worship. Demand for Mystic Monk Coffee had not yet exceeded the roaster’s capacity, but the monastery planned to purchase a larger, 130-pound- per-hour roaster when demand further approached the current roaster’s capacity. The monks had received a quote of $35,000 for the new larger roaster.

Marketing and Website Operations Mystic Monk Coffee was promoted primarily by word of mouth among loyal customers in Catholic parishes across the United States. The majority of Mystic Monk’s sales were made through its web- site, but on occasion telephone orders were placed with the monks’ secretary, who worked outside the cloistered part of the monastery. Mystic Monk also offered secular website operators commissions on its sales through its Mystic Monk Coffee Affili- ate Program, which placed banner ads and text ads on participating websites. Affiliate sites earned an 18 percent commission on sales made to customers who were directed to the Mystic Monk site from their site. The affiliate program’s Share A Sale participa- tion level allowed affiliates to refer new affiliates to Mystic Monk and earn 56 percent of the new affili- ate’s commission. The monks had also just recently expanded Mystic Monk’s business model to include wholesale sales to churches and local coffee shops.

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Lessons From the Failure of a Great Machine

Lessons From the Failure of a Great Machine

How Galloping Gertie collapsed left us a lasting design legacy.

Washington State Department of Transportation

The Damage

A bridge inspector checks the damaged cable WSDOT
A bridge inspector checks the damaged cable WSDOT

Main cables: During the collapse, the main suspension cables were thrown violently side to side, twisted, and tossed 100 feet into the air. They slipped from their positions in the cable saddles atop each tower. And, they fell hard on the approach spans. On the north cable at mid-span, where the cable band loosened, it broke more than 350 wires. Other wires were severely stressed and distorted. The main cables were a total loss, but salvage was undertaken. Their only value was as scrap metal.

Suspender cables: The violent collapse broke many suspender cables. Some were lost, some severely damaged, and some undamaged. Their only value now was as scrap metal.

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View of damaged cables and towers looking west, February 1943 WSDOT
View of damaged cables and towers looking west, February 1943 WSDOT
View from below the deck at buckled steel beams WSDOT
View from below the deck at buckled steel beams WSDOT
M3-5 Sagging east side span GHM, Bashford 2795
M3-5 Sagging east side span GHM, Bashford 2795

Towers: The main towers (West Tower, #4; and East Tower, #5), including the bracing struts, were twisted and bent. Stress beyond the elastic limit of the metal resulted in buckling and permanent distortion. Their only value now was as scrap metal.

Deck-Floor System: Not surprisingly, the concrete and steel of the center span that now lay on the bottom of the Narrows was deemed a total loss. The remainder of the broken concrete on the side spans needed removal. The floor system had sections that were bent and overstressed. Their only value now was as scrap metal.

Side Spans: The loss of the center section, followed by the dropping of the side spans, caused substantial damage. The events stressed and distorted the plate girders and floor beams. Some buckled beyond repair.

Piers: Both the West Pier (#4) and the East Pier (#5) sustained no damage. The collapse of the center span caused partial sheering of rivets that attached the towers to the tops of the piers.

Anchorages: The anchorages for the main cables were undamaged. For building a replacement bridge, removal of part of the concrete would be necessary in order to spin the new main cables.

First Investigations-Partial Answers to “Why”

The collapse of the 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge stunned everyone, especially engineers. How could the most “modern” suspension bridge, with the most advanced design, suffer catastrophic failure in a relatively light wind?

The State of Washington, the insurance companies, and the United States government appointed boards of experts to investigate the collapse of the Narrows Bridge. The Federal Works Administration (FWA) appointed a 3-member panel of top-ranking engineers: Othmar Amman, Dr. Theodore Von Karmen, and Glen B. Woodruff. Their report was the Administrator of the FWA, John Carmody and became known as the “Carmody Board” report.

In March 1941 the Carmody Board announced its findings. “Random action of turbulent wind” in general, said the report, caused the bridge to fail. This ambiguous explanation was the beginning of attempts to understand the complex phenomenon of wind-induced motion in suspension bridges. Three key points stood out:

(1) The principal cause of the 1940 Narrows Bridge’s failure was its “excessive flexibility;” (2) the solid plate girder and deck acted like an aerofoil, creating “drag” and “lift;”

(3) aerodynamic forces were little understood, and engineers needed to test suspension bridge designs using models in a wind tunnel.

“The fundamental weakness” of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, said a summary article published in Engineering News Record, was its “great flexibility, vertically and in torsion.” Several factors contributed to the excessive flexibility: The deck was too light. The deck was too shallow at 8 feet (a 1/350 ratio with the center span). The side spans were too long, compared with the length of the center span. The cables were anchored at too great a distance from the side spans. The width of the deck was extremely narrow compared with its center span length, an unprecedented ratio of 1 to 72.

The pivotal event in the bridge’s collapse, said the Board, was the change from vertical waves to the destructive twisting, torsional motion. This event was associated with the slippage of the cable band on the north cable at mid-span. Normally, the main cables are of equal length where the mid-span cable band attaches them to the deck. When the band slipped, the north cable became separated into two segments of unequal length. The imbalance translated quickly to the thin, flexible plate girders, which twisted easily. Once the unbalanced motion began, progressive failure followed.

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The investigation Board’s most significant finding was simple and obvious: the engineering community must study and better understand aerodynamics in designing long suspension bridges.

Meanwhile, Professor F. B. Farquharson continued wind tunnel tests. He concluded that the “cumulative effected of undampened rhythmic forces” had produced “intense resonant oscillation.” In other words, the bridge’s lightness, combined with an accumulation of wind pressure on the 8-foot solid plate girder and deck, caused the bridge to fail.

Leon Moisseiff, who was contacted immediately after the failure, said he was “completely at a loss to explain the collapse.” Moisseiff visited the ruined bridge one week later, touring under the watchful eye of Clark Eldridge. Moisseiff’s design, while pushing beyond the boundaries of engineering practice, fully met the requirements of accepted theory at the time. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/TNBhistory/images/wave.gif

“Blind Spot”– Design Lessons of Gertie’s Failure

At the time the 1940 Narrows Bridge failed, the small community of suspension bridge engineers believed that lighter and narrower bridges were theoretically and functionally sound. In general, leading suspension bridge designers like David Steinman, Othmar Amman, and Leon Moisseiff determined the direction of the profession. Very few people were designing these huge civil works projects. The great bridges were extremely expensive. They presented immensely complicated problems of engineering and construction. The work was sharply limited by government regulation, various social concerns, and constant public scrutiny. A handful of talented engineers became pre-eminent. But, they had what has been called a “blind spot.”

That “blind spot” was the root of the problem. According to bridge historian David P. Billington, at that time among suspension bridge engineers, “there seemed to be almost no recognition that wind created vertical movement at all.”

The best suspension bridge designers in the 1930s believed that earlier failures had occurred because of heavy traffic loading and poor workmanship. Wind was not particularly important. Engineers viewed stiffening trusses as important for preventing sideways movement (lateral, or horizontal deflection) of the cables and the roadway. Such motion resulted from traffic loads and temperature changes, but had almost nothing to do with the wind.

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This trend ran in virtual ignorance of the lessons of earlier times. Early suspension bridge failures resulted from light spans with very flexible decks that were vulnerable to wind (aerodynamic) forces. In the late 19th century engineers moved toward very stiff and heavy suspension bridges. John Roebling consciously designed the 1883 Brooklyn Bridge so that it would be stable against the stresses of wind. In the early 20th century, however, says David P. Billington, Roebling’s “historical perspective seemed to have been replaced by a visual preference unrelated to structural engineering.”

Just four months after Galloping Gertie failed, a professor of civil engineering at Columbia University, J. K. Finch, published an article in Engineering News-Record that summarized over a century of suspension bridge failures. In the article, titled “Wind Failures of Suspension Bridges or Evolution and Decay of the Stiffening Truss,” Finch reminded engineers of some important history, as he reviewed the record of spans that had suffered from aerodynamic instability. Finch declared, “These long-forgotten difficulties with early suspension bridges, clearly show that while to modern engineers, the gyrations of the Tacoma bridge constituted something entirely new and strange, they were not new–they had simply been forgotten.”

An entire generation of suspension bridge designer-engineers forgot the lessons of the 19th century. The last major suspension bridge failure had happened five decades earlier, when the Niagara-Clifton Bridge fell in 1889. And, in the 1930s, aerodynamic forces were not well understood at all.

“The entire profession shares in the responsibility,” said David Steinman, the highly regarded suspension bridge designer. As experience with leading-edge suspension bridge designs gave engineers new knowledge, they had failed to relate it to aerodynamics and the dynamic effects of wind forces. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/TNBhistory/images/wave.gif

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End of an Era

The collapse of Galloping Gertie on November 7, 1940 revealed the limitations of the “deflection theory.” Now, engineers no longer believed that suspension bridges needed to be stiffened only against the stress of moving vehicles and the “minor” effect of wind.

The failure of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge effectively ended Moisseiff’s career. More importantly, it abruptly ended an entire generation of bridge engineering theory and practice, and the trend in designing increasingly flexible, light, and slender suspension spans.

Othmar Amman said of the collapse of the 1940 Narrows Bridge, “Regrettable as the Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure and other recent experiences are, they have given us invaluable information and have brought us closer to the safe and economical design of suspension bridges against wind action.”

Suspension Bridge Design Since 1940

“Mere size and proportion are not the outstanding merit of a bridge; a bridge should be handed down to posterity as a truly monumental structure which will cast credit on the aesthetic sense of present generations.” —- Othmar H. Amman, 1954

The end of the 1950s witnessed the construction of two of the greatest suspension bridges in the world, built by two of the 20th century’s greatest bridge engineers. The Mackinac Strait Bridge, which opened in November 1957 in Michigan, was the crowning achievement of David B. Steinman. In New York the Verazzano-Narrows Bridge, designed by Othmar Amman, was 10 years in the making and finally opened in November 1964. Both of these monumental spans directly benefited from the legacies of the failed 1940 and the successful 1950 Tacoma Narrows Bridges.

Over the course of the last 60 years since Galloping Gertie failed, bridge engineers have created suspension bridges that are aerodynamically streamlined, or stiffened against torsional motion, or both.

Now, wind tunnel testing for aerodynamic effects on bridges is commonplace. In fact, the United States government requires that all bridges built with federal funds must first have their preliminary design subjected to wind tunnel analysis using a 3-dimensional model.

Failure of the 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge revealed for the first time limitations of the Deflection Theory. Since the Tacoma disaster, aerodynamic stability analysis has come to supplement the theory, but not replace it. The Deflection Theory remains an integral part of suspension bridge engineering. Today, the theory’s principles serve as a model for the complex analytical methods (such as “Finite Element” computer programs) used by structural engineers to calculate stresses in the suspension cable system.

Since the 1990s, advances in computer graphics technology and high-speed processing have enabled such calculations to be performed on desktop computers. Today, engineers recognize the importance of a thorough aerodynamic analysis of the structures they design. Advanced modeling software programs assist the complex calculations.

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Why Did Galloping Gertie Collapse?

For over six decades, engineers have studied the collapse of the 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge. The experts disagree, at least on some aspects of the explanation. A definitive description that meets unanimous agreement has not been reached. The exact cause of the bridge’s failure remains a mystery.

Why is it important to know the exact cause of the 1940 bridge’s collapse? Engineers need to know how a new suspension bridge design will react to natural forces. The more complete their understanding, the better their problem solving, and thus, the stronger and safer their bridge. The fact that engineers still argue about the precise cause of the Galloping Gertie’s collapse is testimony to the extraordinary complexity of natural phenomena. Today, the 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge’s failure continues to advance the “scientific method.”

The primary explanation of Galloping Gertie’s failure is described as “torsional flutter.” It will help to break this complicated series of events into several stages.

Here is a summary of the key points in the explanation.

1. In general, the 1940 Narrows Bridge had relatively little resistance to torsional (twisting) forces. That was because it had such a large depth-to-width ratio, 1 to 72. Gertie’s long, narrow, and shallow stiffening girder made the structure extremely flexible.

2. On the morning of November 7, 1940 shortly after 10 a.m., a critical event occurred. The cable band at mid-span on the north cable slipped. This allowed the cable to separate into two unequal segments. That contributed to the change from vertical (up-and-down) to torsional (twisting) movement of the bridge deck.

3. Also contributing to the torsional motion of the bridge deck was “vortex shedding.” In brief, vortex shedding occurred in the Narrows Bridge as follows:

(1) Wind separated as it struck the side of Galloping Gertie’s deck, the 8-foot solid plate girder. A small amount twisting occurred in the bridge deck, because even steel is elastic and changes form under high stress.   (2) The twisting bridge deck caused the wind flow separation to increase. This formed a vortex, or swirling wind force, which further lifted and twisted the deck.   (3) The deck structure resisted this lifting and twisting. It had a natural tendency to return to its previous position. As it returned, its speed and direction matched the lifting force. In other words, it moved ” in phase” with the vortex. Then, the wind reinforced that motion. This produced a “lock-on” event.

4. But, the external force of the wind alone was not sufficient to cause the severe twisting that led the Narrows Bridge to fail.

5. Now the deck movement went into “torsional flutter.”

“Torsional flutter” is a complex mechanism. “Flutter” is a self-induced harmonic vibration pattern. This instability can grow to very large vibrations.

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When the bridge movement changed from vertical to torsional oscillation, the structure absorbed more wind energy. The bridge deck’s twisting motion began to control the wind vortex so the two were synchronized. The structure’s twisting movements became self-generating. In other words, the forces acting on the bridge were no longer caused by wind. The bridge deck’s own motion produced the forces. Engineers call this “self-excited” motion. It was critical that the two types of instability, vortex shedding and torsional flutter, both occurred at relatively low wind speeds. Usually, vortex shedding occurs at relatively low wind speeds, like 25 to 35 mph, and torsional flutter at high wind speeds, like 100 mph. Because of Gertie’s design, and relatively weak resistance to torsional forces, from the vortex shedding instability the bridge went right into “torsional flutter.”

Now the bridge was beyond its natural ability to “damp out” the motion. Once the twisting movements began, they controlled the vortex forces. The torsional motion began small and built upon its own self-induced energy.

In other words, Galloping Gertie’s twisting induced more twisting, then greater and greater twisting.

This increased beyond the bridge structure’s strength to resist. Failure resulted.

1. What were the constraints on this project? In what ways was the project’s planning and scope management appropriate and when did they begin taking unknowing or unnecessary risks?

2. Identify the risk factors that you consider most important for the suspension bridge construction. How would you assess the riskiness of this project? Why?

. What forms of risk mitigation would you consider appropriate for this project?

4. What if Clark Eldridge’s original design for the 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge had been built, instead of Leon Moisseiff’s? Would it have blown down on November 7, 1940 like Galloping Gertie?

5. What recommendations would you make to keep the current (replacement) bridge from suffering the same fate?

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Week 6 Mini Case Study: Nutri-Sam

Week 6 Mini Case Study: Nutri-Sam

Read “Apply Your Understanding: Nutri-Sam.” on pps. 236-237 of Operations Management for MBAs.

Note. Each response should be from 250- to 500-words in length.

1. Draw a network diagram for this project. Identify the paths through the network diagram that could potentially delay the project if its deadline is 40 months.

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2. Find the probability that the project can be completed within 30 months. What is the probability that the project will take longer than 40 months? What is the probability that the project will take between 30 and 40 months?

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3. Use Crystal Ball® (or any other simulation package) to simulate the completion of this project 1000 times, assuming that activity times follow a triangular distribution. Estimate the mean and standard deviation of the project completion time. Compare your results to your answer to Question 2.